You all must know that there are many software in the computer through which the computer works. 

The software that is most important in a computer is the operating system. 

Today in our article, we are going to tell you about the operating system, what is it, what is its function in the computer and its types.

What is an operating system, what works?

What is Operating System Types , Uses , Features , Services , Windows


Operating system is a type of software or we can also say that it is a type of program. We also know it by the name of OS. The operating system plays the most important role in any computer. In general language, if we say, it acts as an intermediary between the computer and the user, or say that the system operating all the functions in the computer is called the operating system, which controls and controls all the processes of the computer.


How does the operating system work ? 



  • As we know computer does not understand human language, it only understands binary language and we understand high level language.

  • The computer understands only 0 and 1 in binary language. Whatever we type on the computer, the operating system converts it into a binary language of the computer and sends it to the computer, as well as the computer which is in the binary language, converts it to a high level language and reaches the user.

  • In this way the operating system acts as an intermediate between the user and the computer.

  • In simple language, it is the job of the operating system to take our matter to the computer, and to communicate the computer to the user.

  • The operating system gives the user an interface environment for working on the computer. An operating system is made up of many instructions. Operating system is a type of system software.


Names of Operating System


Main operating system

  • MS - DOS OS,

  • Windows OS,

  • Linux OS,

  • Mac os,

  • Symbian OS,

  • IOS Android OS,

  • Vista etc.


Characteristics of Operating System



  • The operating system manages to manage all the put and out put devices of the computer.

  • The operating system manages to manage all the computer's processes.

  • The operating system manages to manage all the files on the computer. Like which file is kept in which folder and where.

  • The operating system manages to manage the memory of the computer, under this, how much space is given to which function is determined.

  • The operating system manages to manage the computer's secondary storage device, such as where to save the user-created file.

  • Important tasks like network management in computers are also done by the operating system. All network related tasks like connecting the internet, connecting two computers are included.

  • Computer internal clock management is also done by the operating system.

  • The management of all the hardware devices of the computer like keyboard, mouse, monitor etc. is also done by the operating system. In general language, which type of work is to be done by which device, this work is done by the operating system.


O perating System Types


Some types of operating systems are as follows -

  • Simple batch operating system: - In such operating system there is no direct interaction between the user and the computer. Also, there is no mechanism to process and prioritize it. In this, the user has to submit a job (in writing on card or tape) to the computer operator. Then the computer operator creates batches of multiple jobs on one input device, these batches have many languages ​​and requirements simultaneously. Then a particular program monitors and manages the execution of each program in batches. The monitor is always in main memory and is available for execution.

  • Multitasking or time sharing operating system: - It takes some time to execute each task so that all the tasks can be done smoothly. The time sharing operating system enables people located on different terminals (shells) to use the same computer system at the same time. Processor time (CPU) that is shared between multiple users is called time sharing.

  • Multiprocessor Operating System: - Multiprocessor operating system consists of several processors which share a common physical memory. Multiprocessor system provides higher computing power and speed. All processors in multiprocessor operating systems operate under a single operating system.

  • Real Time Operating System: - Real time operating system is an operating system that is known to give maximum time for each important operation, and which performs tasks such as OS calls and interrupt handling. This operating system which guarantees maximum time for critical operations and completes them on time is called hard real time operating system. While real time operating systems that can only guarantee maximum time, that is, prioritize important tasks over other tasks and there is no guarantee to complete it on time, it is considered as a soft real time operating system. Is known.

  • Distributed Operating System: - These operating systems use multiple processors located in different machines to provide very fast computation to their users. Processors communicate with each other through various communication lines such as high speed buses or telephone lines. This is called Luselli Coupled Systems or Distributed Systems. In a distributed system, processor size and function may vary. These processors are referred to as sites, nodes, computers, etc.

  • Network Operating System: - Network operating system runs on a server. It provides the ability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications and other networking functions. The primary purpose of a network operating system is to allow printer access to a share file between multiple computers in a network, usually a local area network (LAN), a private network, or another network.

  • Mobile Operating System: - Mobile operating systems are operating systems that are specially designed to power smartphones, tablets and wireless devices. Some of the well-known mobile operating systems are Android and iOS, but others include BlackBerry, Web and WatchOS.


O perating System Function


An operating system software performs all of the following functions -

  • Process Management: - Process management helps the operating system to create and delete processes. That is, it manages all the processes running in the system. It provides mechanisms for synchronization and communication between processes. A process is simply a program run by a user on a computer system.

  • Memory Management: - It manages the location of the memory of the system for various processes. It also manages both primary and secondary memory.

  • File Management: - An operating system manages all the files and directories of a computer system. A file is one in which any information or data is stored, and it is stored in the memory of the computer system. An operating system allows us to create, delete, protect and edit files in a computer system. In other words, it manages all the activities related to the file like organization storage, retrieval, naming, sharing and saving files etc.

  • Device Management: - This function of the operating system is used to track and manage various devices which are connected to the computer system. The function responsible for this function is known as 1/0 controller. An operating system interacts with the hardware device through a special device driver. In addition, it performs the function of A-location and D-allocation of devices.

  • Security Management: - An operating system uses various technologies such as authentication, authorization, cryptography etc. to ensure the security of the compute system. That is, it ensures the protection of computer systems from various threats and virus attacks.

  • 1/0 System Management: - In this function, any operating system performs one of its main objects to hide the feature of that hardware device from the user.

  • Secondary - Storage Management: - There are many levels of storage in the system, which include primary storage, secondary storage and cache storage. In this function, any instruction and data is stored in primary storage or cache, so that a running program can refer to it.

  • Command Interpretation: - This function is used to process a given command and to intercept commands given by Acting System Resources.

  • Networking: - A distributed system is a group of processors that does not share memory, hardware devices, or a clock. Processors communicate with each other through the network. And the same networking function happens.

  • Job Accounting: - In this function, the time and resources used by different jobs and users are tracked.

  • Communication Management: - The function of managing the coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreter and other software resources of various users of computer systems is done in this function.


In this way, the performance of an operating system is accomplished through the performance of all the above mentioned functions. The operating system is one of the most important components for any computer to run. The computer works only on the basis of the operating system. A computer without operating system is of no importance.

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