The most essential part of any electronic machine is the processor. Due to this only electronic circuit calculates. 

Actually the processor is an integrated electronic circuit that calculates the computer. A processor passes all operating systems such as Arithmetical,

Logical (Input / Output (I / O) and other required instructions) and all other processes are mostly dependent on the same processor.

Processors used in computers This is called the Central Processing Unit (CPU), which is the main part of the computer. The computer's CPU handles all the information it receives from the computer's hardware and software.

What is the processor, how does it work?

What is the processor ? How does it work What is Microp rocessor, Types, Comparison, Price,


A processor or microprocessor is a small chip that resides in a computer or any electronic device. Its basic function is to take input and give proper output. These tasks are very easy to see, but there are a lot of complicated calculations behind it. Modern-day processors perform trillions of calculations in seconds. The central processor CPU of the computer, also known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU), handles all the basic instructions of the processor system. Which includes mouse, keyboard input and all running applications.

Processor components


The processor has 2 main components, the first control unit and the second arithmetic and logical unit (ALU-ALU) -

  • Control Unit - CU: - This part of the CPU helps in following the instructions. It tells how to follow the instructions. They activate the CPU by connecting wires to various parts, including the ALU. Control units are of two types - hardwire control unit and microprogrammable control unit. In which hardware control units speed up the process of instructions, while microprogrammable are quite flexible.

  • Arithmetic and Logical Unit - ALU: - These units perform all the arithmetic and logical computations as per their name. In this, operations like additions, subscriptions are accomplished with the help of logic gate. Most logic gates take 2 inputs and give one output.


How do processors work ? 


It is also important to understand the terms like register, register-latches, instruction to understand the working of the processor. After understanding all these basic terms, it is easy to understand how the processor of the computer works as well as the instruction executive given to the computer. So all this information is given to you here -

  • Storage - Registers and Memory: - It requires data to follow the instructions given to the CPU, some data are intermediate data and some are input or output data. All these data are saved in register or memory (RAM-RAM) with its instruction.

  • Registers: - This register is a combination of latches, also known as combination of flip-flops of logic gate which store a bit of information. A latch has two input wires, one is the Write and Input Wire and the other is the Output Wire. CPUs have registers to store the output data, these data are sent to other registers which are connected by BUS. A register can store instruction, output data, storage address or any kind of data.

  • Memory (RAM ) Memory (RAM): - Arranged and Compact registers are called REM in which a large amount of data can be saved. This random access memory is volatile, which means that the data can fly when power off. In fact, the collection of registers for reading / writing data is rem.

  • What are the instructions ? (What are Instructions): - Instruction is a computation of granular level that performs computer. The CPU can process various types of instruction. Which include the following types of instructions -



  1. Arithmetic instructions such as add and substract,

  2. Logic instructions such as and (and) and (or) and not

  3. Data instruction such as move, input, output, load and store,

  4. Control flow instructions such as goto, if… goto, call and return

  5. Notifying the CPU that the program has shut down the halt (Notify CPU that the program has ended Halt)


Instructions are given to the computer using the assembly language and are generated by the assembly language compiler or intercepted by some high level languages. The instruction whose group performs the computer is called Instruction Set.

  • How are the instruction executive given to a computer ? : - 


Instructions are stored in a sequential order in RAM (RAM). Instruction for a hypothetical CPU consists of an OP code (operation code) and a memory or register address. As mentioned above, the control unit consists of two types of registers, one is the Instruction Register (IR-IR) which loads the instruction's OP code and the other is the instruction address register which is the current executing instruction. Loads the address. To execute the instruction, the data is put into memory and then the work is executed in the following 4 steps.

  1. Control units receive data from memory as Fetches.

  2. The control unit decodes the instruction and then moves the required data from memory to the arithmetic / logic unit.

  3. Arithmetic units / logical units execute instruction according to their respective, meaning whatever data is received, thus controlling and performing actual operation on ALU data.

  4. The arithmetic / logic unit stores the results of this operation in memory or register.


The first two steps together are called I-time here, the same third and fourth steps together are called execution time or E-time.

Ultimately, the control unit releases memory into an output device or secondary storage device. The combination of i-time and e-time is called machine cycle.

Types of Processor



  • Whenever someone buys a computer or mobile, they first look at the processor and its features. The type of processor and its speed affect the performance of the computer. The performance of the processor depends on the speed and architecture of its operation.

  • Most desktop computers have Intel or AMD CPUs, both have x86 Processor Architecture. Some mobile devices such as laptops and tablets also use Intel and AMD CPUs, but they may also use CPUs from certain companies such as ARM or EPL.

  • Modern CPUs also use multiple processing cores that work together to follow instruction. Although all these cores are in the same physical unit, but they are all individual processors. If the performance of the computer is viewed by a system monitoring utility such as Window Task Manager (Windows) or Activity Monitor (Mac OS X-Mac OS X), a separate graph of each processor can be seen.

  • There is competition among the processors, because many types of processors are coming in the market which are more advanced. Processor manufacturers like Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) are continuously making more and more advanced processors and new models in the market within a few months. These are more advanced than before because where earlier some processors like 8086, 80286 and 802386 used to come in a span of years, now the same new processors are coming in a span of months.


The processor core and clock speed determine how much information can be captured at a time. The speed at which the computer's core and clock speed work together is called the processing speed.

What are Processor Cores ? 



  • Processor cores are individual processing units in the central processing unit of any computer. Processor cores receive instruction from a single computing task and process by working with clock speeds and also save some temporary information in random access memory (RAM), while the permanent information in the hard drive when the user requests it Is saved.

  • Nowadays, many computers have multiple cores that make the computer multitasking, such as editing a document while watching a video or opening a new program, all of which are completed by the multiple processor core unit.

  • Complex video games or programs require that the CPU feeds all information efficiently. Processor cores have become very important in the digital age to become multiple taskers.

  • Multiple processor cores and Hyper-Threading Technology are required for both gaming and computers.

  • Processors that have 2 cores are called dual-core processors while those that have four cores are called quad-core processors. Some high-end workstations have CPUs with a variety of cores in which a machine has eight, twelve, or even more processing cores.


What is clock speed ? 


In a clock cycle, a computer performs an instruction, but a modern computer can perform more than one instruction. The clock speed of the computer determines how quickly the central processing unit works with information on it. Clock speeds are measured in Gigahertz. Multi-core processors have been developed to speed up CPU and clock speeds. The higher the clock speed, the more quickly the CPU completes the task.

Processor Core vs Clock Speed



  • Processor core and clock speed are both completely different functions but they have the same goal. When buying a computer, decisions can never be made by looking at one's speed. Because both of them depend on each other to operate the function of the computer smoothly.

  • Only by understanding the difference between these two, a better computer can be determined. If a complex is planning to buy a computer for video editing, then it needs different types of processor cores, while standard programs and internet browsing require different types of processor cores and clock speeds.

  • In fact both processor core and clock speed are required for the computer. Computers with high clock speeds can run a single application faster, while those with more processor cores but slower clock speeds mean computers can run multiple applications at once, but all applications run at a slower speed. Therefore, it is necessary to look at the requirement of the person to choose a computer. Not everyone needs the same computer, someone has to run the same application, then it is necessary for someone to run many applications simultaneously.


Which is the best processor speed in laptop and desktop ? 

Laptop CPUs are different from desktops. Leptop has low power and flexible processors, although they are quite convenient but if one needs high clock speed then one has to get a desktop to meet its processing requirement. Due to the development of multi-core processors and hyper-threading methods, these features can also be found in laptop. Most laptops have dual-core processors which are sufficient to meet everyday requirements, some also have quad-core processors which increase the processing efficiency of laptop computers. This is how the processor works in all electronic devices.

 

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