There has been a period of English rule in India, where all the Indians had to suffer a lot. At this time, fed up with the atrocities of the British rule, the countrymen made sacrifices, satyagraha and after many sacrifices, the country could get freedom.
After the departure of the British rule, the people of the country were very happy that now democracy has come in India and there will not be any dictatorial attitude of any leader,
but very soon Indira in India on 25 June 1975 Gandhi declared a state of emergency, violating the beliefs of Indian democracy. This day came like a dark and tarnished day in the history of Indian democracy.
The days of this emergency lasted, the values of Indian democracy kept flying. The government kept arresting the people who spoke against the government by the police.
Many mass agitators were beaten up badly. In this way an attempt was made to suppress the people of every section of the country. Here a detailed description is being done on all sides of the imposition of Emergency in India.
What is 1975 Emergency in india , process, important point
Emergency is a provision in the Indian constitution that is used when the country is in danger of any internal, external or financial threat. Therefore, there are three situations when an emergency can be imposed by the government.
The framers of the Constitution envisioned such a state of emergency that if ever there was such a crisis on the country , which endanger the unity , integrity and security of the nation ,
then for this time some provisions have to be made, according to which the central government is tied No, and he can take serious decisions without any restriction.
For example, if a neighboring country attacks us, then our government should not pass any kind of bill for retaliation in Parliament. Since there is parliamentary democracy in our country, our country has to pass a bill in Parliament first to fight any other country.
But sometimes it can happen that the attack is sudden and we do not get a chance to settle any formal activities.
In such a situation, the central government gets more powers under this provision and the central government is able to take decisions according to its own will.
The Central Government gets these powers to evacuate the country from this emergency.
Emergency in Indian constitution-
India is the largest republic in the world. The constitution of many countries around the world has been researched in the making of its constitution. Emergency is discussed in Indian constitution in the 18th part of the constitution, between article 352 to 360. This provision in the Indian Constitution is derived from the Weimar Constitution (1919 to 1933). Weimar Republic Germany was called.
Emergency types in India-
The Indian Constitution describes three types of emergency, which are described below,
- National Emergency : It is described in Article 352 of the Constitution. This emergency applies throughout the country. It can be applied mainly in three circumstances. These three conditions are:
- If there is a war with another country.
- If a ‘non-state actor’ attacks us from outside. The term ‘external movement’ has been used for this incident in the Indian Constitution.
- If within the country, an armed organization opens a front against the Government of India. In the Indian constitution, this situation was earlier defined as ‘Internal Disturbance’, but later it was changed to ‘Armed Rebellion’. This change was changed in 1978.
In addition to the above three situations, if the government ever feels that such situations are likely to happen, then the government can implement National Emergency in this situation.
- State Emergency : It is described in Article 356 of the Constitution. It is implemented in a state when the constitutional system is unable to run the administration there. Initially, it was described as such but later when court cases were held, the Supreme Court of India described the specific reasons when President’s rule can be imposed in a state. Apart from this, President’s rule can be implemented in any state on the basis of Article 365 of the Indian Constitution. Under this article, if a state does not follow the necessary instructions of the central government, then also President’s rule can be imposed there.
- Economic Emergency : It is described in Article 360 of the Indian Constitution. It can be implemented in India only when the economic stability of India is somehow endangered. Therefore, if India’s economic policies completely fail in any situation, then this emergency can be implemented by the Government of India.
National Emergency in India
So far, the National Emergency has been implemented in India three times. The time of these three emergencies is as follows.
- From 1962 to 1968, during which Indo-Pakistan and Indo-China wars took place. At this time India’s economic conditions deteriorated.
- In the year 1971, during the India-Pakistan war, this emergency was again implemented.
- In the year 1975, Indira Gandhi implemented emergency in the whole of India by stating the reason for ‘internal disturbance’. This emergency was very influential, under which the government made a lot of effort to suppress the voices of common people. Its detailed description is given below.
Emergency Procedures –
Emergency in India can only be implemented by the President of India, but for this they need to be recommended by the Union Cabinet in writing.
However, this did not happen in 1975 and at that time Prime Minister Indira Gandhi made an emergency declaration in the country and imposed an emergency.
The declaration of this emergency is required to be approved in both houses of Parliament within one month of its implementation.
If it is approved by both the houses, then this emergency continues for six consecutive months and the bill has to be again passed in both houses to be implemented for six months.
In order to extend the time limit of this emergency, a bill has to be passed in one House of Parliament under ‘Special Majority’. Under ‘Special Majority’, 2/3 of the voting members present in the Parliament should be in favor.
Emergency Termination –
The President of India can end the Emergency at any time. The special thing is that the President does not require any kind of parliamentary approval to announce its termination.
However, the President may have to withdraw his declaration when it is confirmed with a simple majority in the Lok Sabha that an emergency is needed in the country.
Highlights of the 1975 Emergency in India –
The Emergency of the year 1975 is considered the black day of Indian democratic history. As mentioned above, behind this emergency, Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India,
referred to ‘Internal Disturbance’ and this Emergency lasted till 21 March 1977. This was the biggest decision taken during Indira Gandhi’s lifetime .
During this Emergency, all kinds of democratic elections were suspended and there were many restrictions in the freedom of common citizens. Most of Indira Gandhi’s opponents were jailed and the Indian media and press were censored. Its full description is as follows:
- Political and civil unrest:
The year 1973 -75 unrest against Indira Gandhi started growing in the whole of India. Indira Gandhi’s government was being opposed in many ways. One of the biggest movements of this time was the Nav Nirman movement of Gujarat.
This movement lasted between the years 1973 – 74. The state education system here had completely collapsed during this period and due to the movements of the students, the state government was merged with the central government.
The Bihar Students’ Struggle Committee, to be held in the month of March-April of 1974, got the support of Jayaprakash Narayan and under this leadership, there was a big movement against the Bihar government.
At this time, Jai Prakash Narayan announced the ‘complete revolution’, under which students, farmers and common laborers were brought together.
The aim of this movement was that all these people should put their demands in front of the government in a completely non-violent manner.
At the same time, the Railway Employees Union held a railway strike across the country. This strike was suppressed by Indira Gandhi in a very ruthless manner.
During this time many railway employees were arrested and their family members were expelled from the railway quarters. The government faced a lot of criticism because of its misdeeds. The government had to face a lot of criticism in Parliament for this as well.
- Emergency Declaration:
The government alerted all the National Security Agency that there was going to be a war with Pakistan. Apart from this war, the immediate problems faced by the government were drought and the oil crisis of 1973. India’s economy had deteriorated a lot due to these crises.
The government had said that the strike and counter-protest within the country has made the government completely unable to function, due to which the system of India was deteriorating.
At this time, Indira Gandhi felt it right to follow the advice of some of her honest leaders and her son Sanjay Gandhi, whose power had increased politically a lot at this time.
At this time, the immediate Chief Minister of West Bengal, Siddharth Shankar Roy also advised Indira Gandhi to implement ‘Internal Emergency’ across the country.
He discussed in this paper that a lot of anarchy has spread in India and the government is having difficulty in working. In this way, Siddharth Shankar Rai showed how democratic values can be violated even within the scope of the constitution.
- Government Management during Emergency:
Indira Gandhi designed the ’20-point’ economic program, which was aimed at progressing the country’s agricultural and industrial development.
At the same time the government also wanted to fight poverty and illiteracy, but behind all this the government’s discipline was unbearable and it was called ‘Discipline of the Graveyard’.
During the Emergency, it was announced that all trains would run on time and all employees would be able to go to their work easily and work.
The accounts of their work in government offices will be maintained as before. Apart from this ’20 points’, Sanjay Gandhi also described five more points.
With the help of these five points, Sanjay Gandhi wanted to end education, family planning scheme, plantation, ending casteism and dowry system in the country.
Later, during the Emergency, both these programs were made together and the ‘Twenty Five’ point program was made.
- Arrests during Emergency:
Under Article 352 of the Indian Constitution, Indira Gandhi, while keeping herself in government, obtained many extraordinary constitutional powers.
Indira Gandhi used these constitutional powers to suppress her opposition and the opposition of common people. The government set up police and army all over the country and started arresting those who opposed the government’s decisions.
At this time several leaders such as Vijayaraje Scindia, Jayaprakash Narayan, Raj Narayan, Morarji Desai , Charan Singh, Jivataram Kripalani, Atal Bihari Vajpayee , Lal Krishna Advani, Arun Jaitley, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, Gayatri Devi along with eight other immediate public leaders were arrested. Gone.
At this time institutions like Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Jamaat e Islami were banned by the government. Many communist leaders of this time were also arrested.
Congress leaders like Mohan Dharia and Chandra Shekhar also submitted their resignation to the government in protest against this decision of the government and also withdrew from the Congress party.
These leaders were also arrested. Karunanidhi government of Tamil Nadu was dropped and many leaders of his party were put in jail. These people were arrested under the ‘Maintenance of Internal Security Act’.
- Law, Human Rights and Elections:
At this time, the position of the opposition had deteriorated. Many state governments and elections were canceled. The immediate government had a majority of 2/3, ie special majority, so the immediate Congress government could write a new law for the country.
At this time, when Indira Gandhi felt that the immediate law and order was very slow, she chose a bill for the President which would allow her to do whatever she wanted.
In this way, Indira Gandhi wanted to run her rule according to ‘Rule by Decree’. Justice Khanna wrote in his book ‘Making of India’s Constitution’ that ‘a single constitution is not just a rule written on the page, but it is a way of living for the common people’.
- Forced sterilization:
In September 1976, Sanjay Gandhi ordered compulsory sterilization across the country. The intention of the government behind this sterilization was to control the population of the country.
Under this, sterilization was done against the will of the people. During the year 1976-77, about 8.3 million sans were provided. At this time the daily life of many common people was also affected by this decision of the government.
Many people have an infection from this sterilization and are unable to work and earn a living for a time. A young widower named Hawa Singh was also forcefully brought under this process and died due to infection.
The main reasons for criticism against the government during the Emergency
Following are the reasons for criticism against the government during the Emergency.
- Police investigation of common people without any charge.
- Many common and private media used to propagate government propaganda.
- During the Emergency, Sanjay Gandhi had asked Kishore Kumar to sing for the Bombay rally of the Congress Party, but Kishore Kumar refused it. On this, the then Broadcasting Minister Vidya Charan Shukla had unofficially banned the singing of Kishore Kumar on Doordarshan and TV. The ban lasted from May 4, 1976 to the last days of the Emergency.
- All the slums around the Zama Mosque and Turkmen Gate in Old Delhi were removed.
- The process of forced sterilization by the government was also a big reason for criticism of the government.
- At this time many books and films were also banned.
1977 elections in India after emergency –
In January 1977, Indira Gandhi announced re-election and all the agitators were released from jail. At this time, the Congress’s biggest opposition Janata Andolan appealed to the people,
that there will be a last chance for Indians to choose between democracy and dictator. During the Lok Sabha, both Indira Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi lost their Lok Sabha seats.
Similarly, in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh too, all Congress leaders were defeated. Congress got only 153 seats in this election, out of which 92 seats were from four states of South India.
In this election, the Janata Party got a total of 298 seats. At this time, India received its first non-Congress Prime Minister. This Prime Minister was Morarji Desai.
At this time, the Congress could not get a single seat in Uttar Pradesh, while Uttar Pradesh was considered a Congress stronghold. The situation of the Congress in West Bengal too had deteriorated.
In this way, Emergency has been a very sad period for the people here in Indian political history, which is still remembered as a lesson.
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