From the beginning, most of the population of India can say, or about 80 percent of the population depended only on agriculture for sustenance of their lives, but still the grains had to be imported from outside for the subsistence of Indian population.
After Indian independence, when the functioning of India started running at its own pace, the problem of Indian agriculture and food grains was given attention. To eliminate the problem of Indian food grains, the Green Revolution was initiated.
What is Green Revolution When did start in India?
The Green Revolution started in our country in 1966-67 and the credit for bringing it to India goes to MS Swaminathan. As a result of the Green Revolution, many changes were made in the Indian agricultural system and the quality of irrigated seeds, which suddenly led to a lot of improvement in agricultural production. Technological improvements were made mainly in agriculture as a result of the Green Revolution, whose basic objective was to increase agricultural productivity only and only. The goal of becoming self-sufficient in the field of food grains started the Green Revolution in India in the 60s and its results were also positive, which led to a significant increase in agricultural production in a very short period of time.
Components of Green Revolutions –
The components of the new agricultural strategy adopted in the Green Revolution are as follows:
- Use of High-Yeilding Variety (HYV) Seeds – The Green Revolution used mainly high-yielding seeds. The main feature of these seeds was that they mature in a short time. Till now such seeds have been used on crops like wheat, millet, paddy and maize, but wheat is one such crop in which it has achieved the most success.
- Application of Manures and Chemicals in Agriculture Production – After the Green Revolution, chemical fertilizers and fertilizers were used in the country to upgrade agriculture. The use of chemicals made it possible to avoid the damage caused by the crops getting spoiled. Initially, where only 2 kg of chemicals were sprayed per hectare, it has increased manifold in today’s time, which is harmful. But the use of fertilizers, fertilizers and chemicals in farming continued to improve farming and production.
- Multiple Cropping Patterns – The seeds used as a result of the Green Revolution matured quickly, which made it possible to have more than one crop in a year in a field. This increased the total production.
- Mechanization of farming – From now on, new machines such as tractors, harvester pumps etc. were used in farming. In this way the level of farming increased and it was possible to produce more land in less time.
- Better Infrastructure Facilities – The Green Revolution led to better transportation, irrigation and storage facilities for agriculture. An effort to provide better electrical facilities in the villages was also started during this period.
- Price Incentives – The provision of minimum support price for various crops was also started at this time. As a result of this step, it was possible for the farmers to get a fair price for their crops. With this price incentive given to farmers, they were able to adopt new agricultural techniques.
- Better Financial Assistance – Aimed to provide financial assistance to farmers. For this, credit facilities were being provided to farmers through various commercial banks, cooperative banks and national banks, due to better financial facilities, farmers started using better technologies in farming.
- Development of Irrigation Facilities – Improved irrigation facilities were developed under the latest development fund in the agricultural sector. As a result, along with the continuous irrigation facilities in the country, the total irrigated land also started increasing, as a result, production also increased.
- Establishment of Agriculture Service Centers – Agricultural Services Centers were established to solve the problems of the farmers and to diagnose every problem immediately. Its other purpose was also to develop commercial courage among the farmers. For this purpose, farmers were first given technical training and then they were encouraged to set up such centers by providing financial support from banks. So far, the total number of agricultural service centers located in the country is above 1 thousand.
- Establishment of Agro Industry Corporation – Agri Udyog Nigam Center is established in 17 states in India. The main objective of these centers is to supply various agricultural implements and machinery to the farmers and encourage storage of agricultural produce. To fulfill this purpose, various centers of agriculture like tractor, pumpset and others are made available to farmers from these centers, so that every farmer can use them and improve their farming.
Impact or benefits of Green Revolution –
Due to Green Revolution, a lot of development in agriculture was possible in India. Due to increase in production of crops in agriculture, we got to see big and positive changes from agriculture sector in the country.
Modern methods of farming were adopted, which also saw changes in the quality of crops. Following are the effects of green revolution in the country –
- Increase In Agriculture Production – Due to the Green Revolution in India, there was an unlimited increase in the production of food grains, which eliminated the need for import of food grains and made the country self-sufficient in the field of food grains. Till 1966, India was the second largest importing country in the field of foodgrains and even after floods, droughts and other monsoon related obstructions in the late 80s and early 90s, no food grains were imported into the country and This was the biggest success of the Green Revolution.
- Improvement in Productivity – Due to the improvement in the agricultural sector, there were astonishing changes in production. Before the Green Revolution, productivity was very low. Initially special attention was given to wheat and rice crops and it increased productivity, but later it was applied to all crops.
- Increase in Employment – Due to Green Revolution, large scale farming was started, due to the renovation in the fields, various technologies and machines started to be used, all of which resulted in increasing employment opportunities in this area too. Along with this, employment opportunities started increasing in non-agricultural sectors related to agriculture such as milling, marketing, warehousing etc.
- Food Grain Price Stability – Due to the new technology in agriculture, an unlimited increase in production was noticed, due to which the prices of grains were stabilized.
- Establishment of linkages with industries – Agricultural finished goods are being used as raw materials in industries and thus it is possible to use agricultural resources as an input. Apart from this, advanced technologies were being used in agriculture, due to this the demand for resources created by industries increased.
Problems with Green Revolutions –
Due to the increase in productivity due to new agricultural technologies, along with this, the income of the farmers was also seen to change significantly. This has resulted in a considerable change in the level of poverty in rural areas.
Not only did income increase as a result of the Green Revolution, but due to this mutual and regional inequality was also increased and due to this, the distribution of wealth also got to be seen. The Green Revolution had many benefits, but it also led to many problems which are as follows:
- Birth of personal inequalities in rural areas –
Due to the Green Revolution, the gap between the poor and the rich started increasing in the villages, due to which:
- Large farmers who had good availability of irrigation, water, fertilizer and seeds and who could easily avail the facilities of loan, used new technologies quickly and without any difficulty. If we try to understand it in other ways, only the big farmers can take advantage of the Green Revolution due to the complex farming techniques and the amount of money that goes into it. In this way, the small farmers went behind the big farmers, because they were still using the traditional and old methods of agriculture. And then the big farmers who were already in better conditions got more money due to the Green Revolution and the difference between the poor and the rich kept increasing.
- As a result of the Green Revolution, the costs incurred in the fields increased and the value of the product came down relatively. Due to this, the owners of the land started evicting the workers from the fields and the poor had no means of livelihood and their condition became worse.
- Due to mechanization in agriculture, the employment opportunities for unskilled Shrimikas were getting exhausted, due to which their condition worsened and the poor became more and more poor.
- Increase in regional inequalities – Green revolution spread in areas with moderately irrigated land and high rainfall. In villages where there was not enough water facility, the Green Revolution was not accepted. In this way, the gap between the areas where the Green Revolution was adopted and where it was not adopted, widened. States like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Were, where the impact of the Green Revolution was seen rapidly, while other states went backward.
- Damage to the environment – Due to excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides, pollution levels increased, due to water pollution affecting the lives of aquatic animals and wild animals. Due to this, the soil started to be used more and more in the year, due to which the nutrients of the soil started getting destroyed, due to the large scale irrigation techniques, soil erosion started. Due to excessive usage, the level of ground water started decreasing. Farmers became dependent on certain crops, which also damaged biodiversity. The main reason for all these problems was that no training was given to the farmers nor did they have any knowledge about the use of fertilizers and chemical substances.
- This technology was limited to only and only a few crops – based on the use of improved seeds, this new agricultural technology was limited to only a few special crops like wheat, maize and millet, much later for other major Indian paddy crops. Used Its progress was very slow for other major crops like oilseeds, jute etc. Due to this people reduced the production of these crops and production of wheat, maize and millet started increasing. In the 1960s, the capacity of agricultural production in India was very low, due to which food grains had to be imported from outside India. This was the reason that the Green Revolution was immediately used in India, but in haste it could be used for only a few major crops, but this made the production of entire agricultural crops unaffected. For this it was necessary that the Green Revolution be applied to all crops.
Father of Green Revolution in India –
MS Swaminathan is the person who is considered the father of Green Revolution in India. It is mainly the genetic scientist of the plant. They mixed the seeds of Mexico with the domestic variety of Punjab and produced seeds with high production potential for wheat crop. He is the person who was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India for his work.
In this way we can say that the Green Revolution is a major achievement for India, due to which India got security in the field of food grains. In this, scientific techniques were used to increase the production capacity in the country. Due to this, employment opportunities started to increase in rural areas and due to rich production of grains, the poor started getting grains at low prices. Although those who failed to adopt this technology, they also lagged behind, thus it also had many adverse effects, but if we look at this entire process, it has developed the country.
Others Links –